Cystitis is easy to spot, the symptoms of this disease are specific. The patient feels a frequent need to urinate, but it becomes less and less productive. It is possible to "squeeze out" a tiny amount of urine, sometimes blood gets mixed in with it. The process becomes painful, there is a pulling sensation over the pubic area.
Signs of cystitis in women
Cases of illness in women are recorded more frequently than in men. This is due to the female anatomy. The causes of bladder infections in women are that their urethra is shorter than that of men with a larger bladder. The increased volume allows girls to urinate less often. The urine stream naturally flushes pathogens out of the urinary tract. Hence the chain: women go to the bathroom less often, pathogens that enter the urethra are rarely washed off, and a short urethra is a quick way of their "delivery" into the urinary organ.
Other causes of cystitis in women: microtrauma of the urethra, infections that can enter from the anus, vagina. Typical signs of the onset and development of a cystitis:
- Pain in the lower abdomen;
- sharp painful sensations during urination;
- Burning of the urethra;
- unexpected, uncontrolled discharge of urine drops;
- the urine is dark in color, sometimes there is an admixture of blood;
- a rise in temperature (in more acute, more severe cases).
Symptoms of inflammation in men
The causes of the disease in men are different from those in women. The likelihood of getting sick increases with age. The disease is favored by:
- Urolithiasis disease;
- chronic genital infections;
- stricture (narrowing or complete closure) of the urethra;
- Weakening immunity;
- Pyelonephritis or kidney tuberculosis.
Symptoms appear as follows:
- frequent visits to the toilet (up to 40 times a day), but the one-time urine volume is low, about 10-15 ml;
- Urinary incontinence ("drip");
- Difficulty urinating pain;
- in order for the bladder to empty, you have to make an effort;
- the beginning and the end of the process are accompanied by pain;
- Temperature (in acute forms).
Common causes of infectious cystitis are Escherichia coli, less commonly chlamydia, candida and ureaplasma. In addition to infections, damage to the urethra, hypothermia and chronic diseases, other causes also lead to inflammation:
- the external opening of the urinary canal is constantly exposed to irritation (mechanical);
- the patient is allergic to intimate cosmetics, vaginal deodorant, soap, talc, even toilet paper;
- in women, when urinary incontinence appears, one of the causes of the onset of the disease is called psychosomatics, that is, the release of experiences at the physical level is the body's response to problems;
- Cystitis in a child can cause an anatomical abnormality: urine is thrown back into the ureters and the process of its leakage is disrupted.
If blood impurities are visible while urinating, it is a hemorrhagic disease. Blood appears not only at the end of the urine discharge, but also throughout the process, while all the liquid is light pink or cloudy, rusty in color (these cases are accompanied by a foul smell from the discharge). When the bleeding is heavy, blood clots are released.
With prolonged illness with constant loss of blood, the patient develops anemia with iron deficiency. The causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are viral inflammation. This is not uncommon in older men with a history of prostate adenoma. Radiation exposure and the use of cytotoxic drugs (drugs used in oncology, often for pelvic tumors) can cause bladder infections to appear. Often the hemorrhagic form of the disease is accompanied by chills and fever.
When you start the disease, not only will anemia develop, but hemorrhagic cystitis will develop into a chronic form. Start treatment on time. Complications that can accompany cystitis with bleeding:
- Tamponade of the bladder, obstruction of the lumen by a blood clot. Urine cannot come out, the bladder is very stretched.
- Infection: An infection enters through the ruptured blood vessels, which can lead to blood poisoning.
Purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder, acute cystitis is the most common manifestation of the disease. At the same time, there are no serious comorbidities. More often, this form of the disease occurs in women. Up to 36 million cases of acute cystitis are diagnosed in Russia every year. Symptoms last for about a week and are diagnosed based on the symptoms and urinalysis.
This form of the disease involves constant inflammation of the urinary organ with temporary remissions and exacerbations. Chronic cystitis occurs as a complication of another disease and means the appearance of a serious immune system weakness. Chronic inflammation develops against the background of diabetes mellitus, obesity and high blood pressure. The precipitating factor in the manifestation of symptoms of previously transmitted cystitis is hypothermia.
The chronic course of the disease is made more difficult by malnutrition, stress, hypovitaminosis and metabolic disorders. The course of the disease is influenced by the composition of human microflora and their biological properties. Such a diagnosis as "chronic cystitis" does not officially exist in medical textbooks; it is more of a colloquial form to speak of a repeated recurrence of acute cystitis.
What causes cystitis?
The bladder is an organ that is resistant to external influences and covered with a special protective mucous membrane. The penetration of bacteria and viruses is "made available" by the patient himself. The causes of cystitis are infection, but the factors that trigger it are more likely to be related to a lifestyle in which a person reduces their own defenses. Long, strenuous diet, sitting on cold surfaces, constant fatigue, stress - all of these lead to illness.
Factors predisposing to the onset and development of inflammation of the urinary system:
- Formed habit of "bearing" postponing the toilet for a long time, even if you really want to. At the same time, muscle fibers are overstretched and blood flow to the bladder wall is disturbed.
- Violation of personal hygiene, when microbes from the genitals, rectum, anus freely migrate into the bladder. In this case, prevention of contamination is the best remedy for the disease.
- Foreign body in the lumen of the urethra.
- Swelling in the urethra, bladder.
- Seasonal decrease in immunity, weakening of the body with diseases of different origins.
- Menopause, pregnancy, puerperium.
- Wear tight, uncomfortable clothing, tight tights and underwear.
Causes of cystitis after intercourse
It is known that cystitis manifests itself in women after sex as a result of vaginal intimacy. The first to suffer from it are those whose urethra lies in a special way, the urethra is open in front of the vagina. This is a variant of the norm, but with such a structure of the genitourinary system, the vaginal contents get into the urethra, and then into the bladder. In this case, the woman and her partner need to be careful to avoid mechanical damage to the vagina.